An Overview of Project Planning

ByRaji P Palanivel

One approach would be to go through each of the steps in the Step Wise framework, identifying the products created. You might end with something like this.

0. Select project: feasibility report
1. Identify project scope and objectives Terms of reference
2. Identify project infrastructure Standards, procedures relating to progress reporting, change control etc
3. Analyze project characteristics Technical plan, risk register
4. Identify the products and activities Product breakdown structure, product descriptions, product flow diagrams, 'ideal' activity network
5. Estimate effort for each activity Schedule of task durations and costs
6. Identify activity risks. Updated schedule of task durations and costs, updated risk register
7. Allocate resources Gantt chart
8. Review publicize plan: Publicized plan
9. Lower level planning: Detailed plans

A second approach might be to take the contents of the plan document and treat each sub-section as a product in its own right.

Discussion points might include:

Sometimes a product could be an updated version of some existing product. Planning in some way is a particular type of design process, you will often have to go back and modify things you have already created. This leads to the need for having points when products are baseline i.e., when they can no longer be changed without a formal management process being adhered to.

What products must exist before the activity test program can take place. What products does this activity. These seemingly straightforward questions get students to think about what is really involved in the testing process.

One question that may arise is what is meant by program testing. Does it include the process of error diagnosis, correction and retesting the program. When you are allocating time and resources to this in a project, then the answer is probably yes. If so then a wider range of products could be identified example corrected software, change requests, off-specification.

An employee of a training organization has the task of creating case study exercises and solutions for training course which teaches a new systems analysis and design method. The person's work plan has a three-week task learn new method. A colleague suggests that this is unsatisfactory as a task as there is no concrete deliverable or products from the activity.

In order to carry out usability tests for a new word processing package, the software has to be written and debugged. User instructions have to be available describing how the package is to be used. These have to be scrutinized in order to plan and design the tests. Subjects who will use the package in the tests will need to be selected.

As part of this selection process, they will have to complete a questionnaire giving details of their past experience of, and training in, typing and using word processing packages. The subjects will carry out the required tasks using the word processing package. The tasks will be timed and any problems the subjects encounter with the package will be noted.

After the test, the subjects will complete another questionnaire about what they felt about the package. All the data from the tests will be analyzed and a report containing recommendations for changes to the package will be drawn up. Because the Product Flow Diagram is often the product of a subjective process, it is always worth getting the person drafting the Product Flow Diagram to write down a rationale for the particular sequence of activities.

The training plan will outline the structure of the course with rough timings for the major topics. This will has to be agreed with the client. The plan presumes that the training provider uses the design of the overheads as a preliminary step in the detailed design of the course.

The overheads are then complemented by training notes and exercises. The manual brings these together into a package for the trainees. The number of trainees must be known before the material is printed so that we know how many copies to make.

I'm Raji. I completed in engineering degree. Now I'm working in software company from Bangalore.

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How Much Methane Do Cattle Produce?

ByMichael Lister

Methane is a greenhouse gas that is approximately 21 times more potent than carbon dioxide. Methane is produced both naturally and through man-made processes. Most commonly associated with farting cows (it's actually burping cows) methane is also produced by industrial processes, termites, from landfill, rice growing and fossil fuel use.

But how much methane do cattle produce in Australia? The current National Greenhouse Gas Inventory calculates that 15% of the national inventory is from agriculture, of which 66% is from livestock digestion (mainly from cattle and sheep). These calculations are based on modelling and averages. The modelling for the national inventory can be updated as research reveals more accurate data for the models.

Recent research by Ed Charmley from CSIRO has found that northern cattle in Australia produce 30% less methane than previously thought. The CSIRO research is currently being reviewed for use in the next inventory and could mean that the Australian livestock industry's impact is revised to be lower than previously thought. These figures are still averaged across the northern herd and it's extremely unlikely that there will ever be a system to measure methane produced from cattle at a local level due to the complexities and costs associated with methane measurement.

How is methane from cows measured?

Methane gas measurement from livestock is a relatively new science and as such reliable methods and data are not yet available. The science is continually evolving and as more research is completed, the data becomes more and more reliable.

Measuring methane in controlled environments, like closed chambers in a lab is now at a stage that the data is quite reliable. However, measuring cattle and sheep in a lab is not an accurate measurement, as the animals are not behaving how they do in a field and as such the data is not a true reflection of animals' methane production.

To measure how much methane animals produce that are grazing, a variety of technologies have been trialled and used in recent years. To date the most effective method of measuring methane produced by cattle in field is an open-path fourier transformer infrared laser or FTIR. The FTIR operates by sending an infrared beam across a paddock, adjacent to and downwind from the grazing animals. The beam is reflected by a mirror back to the instrument.

To get an accurate reading a small gas canister which releases a tracer gas at a known rate is attached to the animals, and the instrument measures the amount of both the tracer gas and the methane from the animals simultaneously in the air between the instrument and the mirror to determine the amount of methane released from the animals.

The FTIR is the measuring instrument that was used by CSIRO for the study that found the northern herd produces 30% less methane than previously thought and is also being used at three other test sites across the country that are being used to quantify methane production and also demonstrate some of the research Australian agricultural scientists are undertaking to find ways to reduce methane production from cattle and sheep.

Methane levels on the average Australian farm have stayed relatively stable despite increases in livestock number nationally. To find out more information please visit

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Fairtrade - Delivering Much More Than the Right Price to Makers and Sellers

Fairtrade has slowly but surely gone mainstream over the past few years. And it delivers much more than a fair price to the makers and sellers who benefit from it. It's one of those rare concepts that is a genuine force for the common good, benefiting everyone involved right down the line. Here's how spending your hard-earned cash on fairtrade giftsand household goods helps make life better for all sorts of people. Yourself included.

In the bad old days a small business making, say, hand carved wooden bowls might have been paid peanuts by retail buyers. As a result they'd struggle constantly to keep their heads above water. Things like health and safety, employee welfare, good working conditions and decent wages would be way out of reach. So workers would struggle too, unable to provide quality food, basic education and comfortable, clean living conditions for their families. Life without the basics is pretty miserable for everyone concerned. The only winners were the big businesses who passed rock bottom prices on to us, and the end consumers who got great stuff for next to nothing.

These days there's an increasingly brisk trade in fair trade gifts, household items and everyday goods. Because makers and suppliers get a fair price for their goods they can improve manufacturing facilities, take safety and employee welfare into account and paying their people a decent living wage. So workers can feed their families properly, send their children to school and aspire to a better, more comfortable, safer future.

Fair trade ultimately delivers much more than better wages. Its effect cascades right through the chain. Yes, retail buyers have to spend a bit more to supply us with unusual, exciting products. And we sometimes have to spend a little more on them. But the more of us choose ethical goods, the more good we do. The more good we do, the better we feel about ourselves. The more of us engage with ethical shopping the bigger the demand, the lower the variable production costs and the lower the high street price.

As a fairtrade consumer you're doing your bit to drive a unique economic engine that's changing thousands - if not millions - of lives for the better, forever. The more of us buy fairly, the nicer life gets for more people. It's a trend that's worth joining. So hop on the ethical bandwagon and help spread the love!

You can find a great selection of fairtrade gifts at Green Tulip. Use the handy gift finder to quickly locate the ideal gift.

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Are Universities Researching Green Tech Milking the System for Multiyear Projects and Funding?

Well, I'm certainly not against green tech or alternative energy technologies, not in the least. Indeed, I believe that anytime you can do something more efficiently, and with less pollution it's a good thing. However, we've all heard that there can be too much of a good thing, and I believe that is happening now with the funding, subsidizing, and massive amounts of research dollars pouring into green technologies.

Worse, it appears that many University Research Departments are completely milking the system, and working for multiyear projects and continued funding, hoping it will go on indefinitely. The reality is it can't, we can't afford to keep funding research without breakthroughs. Often I will quiz a university researcher working on some sort of alternative energy project, and I'll ask him or her a question - they will tell me that they don't know the answer and they've never thought of that question, and that their funding is for a specific aspect of their research. I see this as an excuse.

As an entrepreneur this bothers me very much because I know if I want to stay in business and run my company, and not get broadsided by regulatory changes, or changes in the marketplace or with the competition for that matter, that I must know every single possible detail, and be able to answer every single question at the drop of a hat. If I can't do that, I will not succeed in the long run, and quite frankly I wouldn't be good enough to do what I'm doing.

It is hard for me to imagine that we don't hold academia and are university researchers to the same high standard as the marketplace holds entrepreneur's feet to the fire. In fact, maybe university researchers need more leeway to ask more questions, or they need to start thinking more like entrepreneurs, and take more notes, and learn more about their subject matter. The way I see it is if someone that knows nothing about their research, someone like me, can ask the question that they've never thought of, even though they spent 10 years researching that micro-niche in the scientific community, then something is wrong.

In fact, it seems to me that something is so wrong, that perhaps it shouldn't be my tax dollars paying for it. I am all for pure research, but I'd also like some results, and I want the very best researchers money can buy, not folks that are just trying to soak up money without performance. In the free marketplace if you don't perform you are out a business, and you go bankrupt. Entrepreneurs are therefore held to a higher standard, and forced to compete and perform. Shouldn't we expect the same from our university research departments? I think we should.

Lance Winslow is a retired Founder of a Nationwide Franchise Chain, and now runs the Online Think Tank. Lance Winslow believes writing 23,850 articles by July 4, 2011 is going to be difficult because all the letters on his keyboard are now worn off now..

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The Ability to Recycle Carbon Composites is Paramount to Our Future

In Europe, they have the end of life program for all of their vehicles. That is to say when you buy a car you have to put down a deposit, which is added into the price of the car, the money is to pay for its end-of-life experience, so it can be broken down and recycled. The money that you paid extra when you bought the car is then given to the recycler who receives the car, from that rotating fund. In the future we will be challenged with the problematic situation that the cars will have more foam, and carbon composites which make them up.

Recycling foam which is behind the dashboard and in other parts of the car is rather tough. Just as recycling tires with steel belts inside is tough because it's hard to separate the steel from inside the rubber in order to recycle both. Carbon composites by their very name, are composite structures, and before you can recycle them, you need to pull them apart. Multiple types of composites with carbon sheets are difficult to repurpose and recycle.

Then there is the issue with aircraft, and more & more aircraft these days are being built with carbon composite components. This makes the aircraft lighter so they get better fuel economy, but what do you do with the aircraft carbon component parts once the aircraft has reached its useful life. Just as metal fatigues, carbon goes through stresses, and it doesn't last forever. Anyone who has a high-speed carbon composite framed bicycle knows this.

Net Composites posted on June 27, 2011 titled "GKN Aerospace to Recycle Carbon Waste" which stated that the purpose of the project is;

"To balance the performance and environmental gains achieved through using composites in aircraft operations it is vital the industry progresses towards greener manufacture on a number of fronts and we believe an effective recycling process is at the heart of that progression. Until now, the only solutions for disposing of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) waste have been landfill or incineration, both of which are harmful to the environment."

This is absolutely wonderful news. It is something the United States needs to do more of. Because if these carbon constructed materials are our future, we need to be able to break them down, and make them into something else. That only makes sense. In the future, especially after the Obama Administration unilaterally decided that every car needs to get 52.5 miles per gallon on average, automobiles will be made of these carbon sheets.

If we start making all of our automobiles out of these types of materials, we have to be able to do something with those car bodies, frames, and other carbon component pieces when they end their useful life. Indeed I hope you will please consider all this and think on it.

Lance Winslow is a retired Founder of a Nationwide Franchise Chain, and now runs the Online Think Tank. Lance Winslow believes writing 23,850 articles by July 4, 2011 is going to be difficult because all the letters on his keyboard are now worn off now..

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Exploring Hydropower As One of the Best Energy Alternatives

ByMick Lancaster

Hydropower is known as the energy source that allows it possible to create electricity without the use of fossil fuels. Transforming the energy created by the movement of water into usable energy seems to be an excellent idea. The source of the hydropower energy is of course water which is obviously a very abundant source. Throughout history humans have utilised water's energy in various ways in order to benefit from its features. As technology has progressed over time capturing the full potential of water's power is becoming a widely more popular and feasible option.

In the near future it is predicted that hydropower will become a more popular form of harnessing energy from water. The advantages of hydropower systems are seemingly obvious. Once they are built the energy that is formed is inexpensive and clean when compared with other power sources. And when you look at the actual amount of pollution produced by hydropower it is very minimal.

Modern society already widely uses water to power hydroelectric turbines. Tidal energy is also utilised and is indeed a reliable source of energy. However, the construction charges for the equipment and labour that is needed in order to harness this energy can be very costly, and can actually be detrimental to life across our water systems. It is definitely clear that hydropower is a smart option for a future reliable energy source, especially within countries that utilise their coastal regions. Problems that are linked with other forms of energy will always ensure that one of the most ancient power sources will linger and will continue to be exploited for years to come. All hydropower utilises is gravity and the natural current of water. If we delve deeper into the construction and use of this energy source we find that it does have its fair share of disadvantages as well.

For instance, the natural environment that fish inhabit is likely to be disturbed or altered in some way. Their surrounding habitats in which they thrive are established based on the optimum water level and the speed of water. This also provides the fish or aquatic life with their food sources. The drainage or disturbance these types of environments would endure in order to create dams or reservoirs to provide hydropower would essentially lead to great destruction of the habitat. Fish will be affected in numerous different ways subject to their size or species. We still have many fantastic waterways with thriving fish colonies due to the unspoiled conditions. The more you actually examine the environmental impact that hydropower may cause in the future if implemented on a bigger scale the more concerned fisheries and conservationists will become.

The Salmon & Trout Association: influencing national decision makers over the management and protection of salmon, trout and sea trout and raising concerns about Hydropower and other important issues.

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Making Lake Water Management Technology Work For You

Every contaminated lake is worth saving, every clean lake is worth protecting. It doesn't have to be your usual tourist spot to deserve attention because some of these lakes support a variety of wildlife like birds, tortoises and other fauna-all of which help maintain the balance of nature. One such place is Tomato Lake in the City of Belmont, Western Australia.

The lake, a seven-hectare wetland protected by the Department of Environment and Conservation's Environmental Protection Policy, is home to the blue-billed duck, long-neck tortoises and other wildlife.

People who want to feel closer to nature and get away from the city go to the park. There, they can spend quality time with their family, enjoy barbecue with friends or give oneself a break from the pressure of city-living.

But even sanctuaries like these, protected as they are, cannot be enjoyed without some sort of care. If left unmanaged, problems can still occur. One of the most common problems of lake waters is algal blooms. Algal bloom is the proliferation of algae in the water due to excess nutrients or warm weather. It's not just smelly or unsightly-it can also produce toxins which can affect the health of animals and humans.

To stop further proliferation of algae and improve the quality of water, the City of Belmont installed two water aerators at Tomato Lake. Do these water aerators really work? How does this lake water management mechanism operate?

Water Aeration Through AirDucks

When air is introduced into the lake, the oxygen-content in the air is transferred into water, making it fit for fish and other aquatic organisms to live in. Natural aeration (strong breeze that can make the surface of the water move) can happen. However, this would not be sufficient to aerate the bottom of the water.

In Tomato Lake, two aerators were installed, each aerator consisting of three 4-kilowatt AirDuck nozzles with airlines. These lines are connected to a pump that injects as much as 3600 litres of air into the bottom of the lake.

And although it operates for 12 hours a day, this new technology does not require a high maintenance nor does it result to high power costs.

Making It Happen

Although aeration is not the cure-all for every water-related issue, it does provide a host of benefits when utilized. Some of these include the reduction of unpleasant odour, proliferation of blue-green algae and excess nutrients, the improvement of water clarity and generally, the improvement of the quality of lake waters.

Using such a technology may not have a big impact in helping the environment cope up with humanities mess as a whole, but it is a concrete step towards that direction, especially when done collectively.

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Will the Nuclear Disaster in Japan Help Spur Green Job Growth?

The devastating earthquake that hit Japan in March of 2011, has had terrible consequences for those whose lives have been turned upside down by the damage and devastation. Unfortunately, it's hard to predict earthquakes and natural disasters - it is even more difficult to predict the outcomes of these events until it is much too late. Although nuclear power technology is generally accepted as safe and necessary all over the world, the earthquake in Japan has strengthened the call by environmentalists and green lobbyists for more innovation and investment into green technology alternatives. And when you consider the ever-rising cost of oil, it is fair to predict that career opportunities in the field alternative energy and sustainable design will continue to grow steadily over the next 20 years.

All these things factor into this one question for those who are looking to join the job market, "Is a "green" career right for you?"

The answer may be simpler than you think and according to, it all comes down to finding a career in green technology that is a good match with your skills and abilities. If you are good with your hands, then you might be interested in becoming a wind turbine technician or a construction worker who specializes installing solar panels could be the right path for you. Maybe you have an interest in architecture or design and would like to develop environmentally friendly buildings and structures. If your strengths are in the creative arts - writing or graphic design, for example - then you might enjoy working in the marketing department of a green technology company or creating green information propaganda to word out there about innovations and trends in the green sector. There are more than 7,000 jobs available right now on green job boards across the internet.

Some other green jobs include work in: urban planning, product design; waste prevention strategies; sustainable landscape and garden design; green furniture building; heating, venting, and air conditioning technician (HVAC); or eco-fashion.

There are many colleges that have programs designed to prepare students to thrive in businesses whose mission is to promote environmentally friendly and energy-efficient products. If you are thinking about going back to school, consider degree programs that could play a role in the green revolution.

If a green career sounds like something you might be interested in. Go to a college search website today to find all of your options. You can search for colleges or schools by state, zip, or degree and are the most complete guide to the nations colleges, universities and online degrees.

US College Search has a wealth of resources for those entering the college search or to help you find an online college.

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Human Based Energy Generation Power System - Potential Power Device

There are some human religions where people bow and pray several times a day to their God. What many people may not understand is this is also actually pretty good exercise. Now then, with a slight modification of this type of action and they could actually produce energy, and then store that energy could be stored perhaps in little battery packs to power up personal tech devices such as iPhones and smart phones, or even a new iPad HD, which will come out later this year.

Perhaps you have seen those shakable flashlights that harness the energy produced by electromagnetic induction. And perhaps you've seen in the personal tech news the backpacks which create energy from the bouncing up and down of a hiker as they walk. Well then, consider this, if someone is bowing and praying there is substantial movement there, and with just a little bit of resistance we could create energy. And why would we waste the energy being produced?

You see, the humans that involve themselves in this activity must eat food and therefore their bodies have the energy to do the bowing and praying. Why waste that energy, I'm sure their God wouldn't want them to waste energy, therefore it could be used for dual purposes; one, for paying tribute to their God, and the other for producing energy to power up their communication devices. In fact, I know of one religion where they bowing pray eight times per day, this is enough to keep a smart phone fully charged all day long, every day.

Why wouldn't we figure out a way to help them do this? And if you consider how many religions bow and pray, or involve themselves in dance, and celebratory ergo dynamic movements, we might be able to power up half of the word, at least their online personal tech devices, and cross the digital divide for good.

Now then, I propose that we slightly modified the bowing motion, to include a standup motion in between each bow, perhaps even modify it to look like a "Burpee-Type" exercise type situation, then all we'd have to do is have the religious worshiping participant wear a special belt, which could harvest the energy on a spring system attached to their feet, something like a long bungee cord, or it could be incorporated into their trousers or even a robe-retrofitted device, in fact, it could work very well inside of a robe too.

It would seem like a good idea, and it might also prevent diabetes, improve health, and that would create a positive attitude, along with the important traditions of the culture and religion, as well as a tribute to their God. I can't think of a better thing to do to solve so many issues all at one time. Indeed I hope and pray that you will please consider this and save that energy for a positive and energetic cause. If you have any other great ideas to harvest human energy please shoot me an e-mail.

Lance Winslow is a retired Founder of a Nationwide Franchise Chain, and now runs the Online Think Tank. Lance Winslow believes writing 24,000 articles by July 24, 2011 is going to be difficult because all the letters on his keyboard are now worn off now..

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Methods for Saving Water Supply When Doing Mobile Onsite Detailing

If you own a mobile on-site detailing operation, then chances are you have a truck or a trailer with a plastic water tank inside. Perhaps it is 100 gallon or 150 gallon loaf tank and it has to get you through the day. If you have to stop and get water and refill, this will take precious time out of your day, or cause you to go back to another location, meaning you will spend more time driving in traffic, and a lot more fuel.

Of course, you could get a bigger tank, but the more water you carry, the more dangerous it is when you're driving due to the extra weight, and the worse gas mileage you will get, and at four dollars per gallon that's not something you need right now in your operating budget. This brings me to another issue. Last year, I was having a conversation with someone and Southwest Florida about their automotive detailing business.

They told me that they were going to add another rig because they had a lot of business, but they were trying to decide if they should go with dry wash, or another mobile washing rig which used water and a pressure washer to clean the vehicles. Yes, they too were having a drought in the area. It is not just the Southwest side of Florida, all of Florida is having challenges with water shortages and droughts. The citizens are quite concerned, so when they see a business using water, if they see too much runoff, they get upset.

Recently I read an interesting piece on the issue of water scarcity article in the Wall Street Journal titled "Big Water Users Get Flak in Drought - Calls for Surcharges as Vast Amounts Consumed by Wealthy Palm Beach Residents Draw Ire of Neighbors" by Arian Campo-Flores (published on July 11, 2011). The article discussed the local code enforcement and water police, along with the municipal regulations on water use. Interestingly enough, prior to retirement I encountered these challenges in cities across the country.

Now then, how do you clean cars without using very much water if you are using a pressure washer? Well, what I recommend is that you spray the car for about 40 seconds at 1200 PSI using a 45-degree tip and get it wet, then soap the car, without trying to create too much suds, and then rinse the car with a 25-degree tip 2200 PSI, blasting the water away. It should take you between 20 and 30 seconds to rinse. If you are using a pressure washer which only puts out 2.2 gallons of water per minute, then you only have 1 minute worth of spraying time, therefore you will be well under 3 gallons of water for each car that you wash.

This means there won't be much runoff because the water will be spread around the car, and it will look like you are conserving water by passersby. And the reason it will look as if you are saving water - is because you actually are. Indeed I hope you will please consider all this and think on it.

Lance Winslow is a retired Founder of a Nationwide Franchise Chain, and now runs the Online Think Tank. Lance Winslow believes writing 24,000 articles by July 24, 2011 is going to be difficult because all the letters on his keyboard are now worn off now.

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Eco-Friendly - When Will the UK Take the Worlds Lead?

The city of Mysore in India is another city embracing the concept of eco-friendly by fixing a minimum price for plastic bags with 40 micron thickness. Retailers are also banned from giving consumers free plastic carrier bags, in a bid to rid the city of plastic waste whilst encouraging the citizens to become more eco-friendly.

Due to Gordon Brown's cow tailing to supermarkets and not introducing a tax on carrier bags, UK citizens are now far from being eco-friendly compared to their Irish counterparts, let alone the rest of the world. In fact the number of bags used by each person in the UK has started to rise again to 7.7 per month, whereas Irelands is just 2!

Until the government force the retailers to charge for carrier bags, the British public will continue to take bags. Unfortunately people think they are being eco-friendly by re-using the bags in their household bins or popping them in the recycling bins at the supermarkets. But it does not matter how many times the bags are reused they will still be here in over a 1000 years. The only eco-friendly way to use a plastic bag is not to use them. If the UK government haven't even got the bottle to force retailers to charge for carrier bags, will they ever ban them?

The UK is falling behind the rest of the world. Rwanda and Eritrea banned plastic bags years ago, which started a ripple effect across Africa with other countries following their lead and banning all bags. China which used 3 billion bags a DAY yes you did read that right, in fact the country used 37 million barrels of oil a year just to make bags that they consume. Thankfully they have now stopped shops from giving away the bags encouraging the population to become more eco-friendly.

I will now digress into my biggest pet hate, yes bigger than seeing all verges covered in discarded bags from multi-national companies who show no corporate responsibility and utter contempt for the beautiful country to which we are temporary guardians. Dog owners! Not all dog owners of course, but the ones who pick up their pets mess in a plastic bag and then discard the bag on the floor or even worse fling the bag into trees. I struggle with the reasoning of having the responsibility of cleaning up after your dog (even if it is in a plastic bag preserving the mess for a millennium) to then throw the bag and mess into the nearest tree.

We need a call to action that the only plastic bags that are produced are degradable and for the government to follow the lead of other countries and implement a blanket ban on giving out bags. This is the only way to encourage an eco-friendly UK.

I have found a company that sells 100% degradable bags they also supply over 950 eco-friendly products, a one stop shop for all things eco. You can find them at


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Rethinking Waste Management

Growing up, I had to clean my plate. My mother would tell me not to waste food. I even remember reading a story about a grown woman who was angry for being told the same thing and that there were starving children on the other side of the world. Why was all of this guilt fed with every spoonful? Were we being taught responsibility? Or, was there something deeper at issue?

Does our attitude about waste have any bearing on our attitudes about economy? I think it does. My parents were always concerned about the cost of replacing what was wasted. From them, I learned how to ask whether or not we could afford to pay for what I wanted. For me, it was orange juice. I always wanted to have a large glass of orange juice with my breakfast, but in a family with five children, I was lucky to get a small restaurant size.

In looking forward to this big treat of a small glass of orange juice, I learned to be a good steward of what I had, but more notably, I learned to expect little things and to be jealous of those who had more than I had. I learned envy and I whopping big lesson in judging others for having too much or for not working hard enough to get more. Worse, I learned to judge myself harshly for not effectively participating in this economy.

In economics class, I was taught that economics was the management and distribution of scarce resources. We were taught to focus on management and distribution, not the fact that scarcity was a presupposition? It was generally assumed that since there would not be any more land created, owning land was crucial to managing and distributing scarce resources.

If, however, economics were based upon abundance instead of scarcity, could, then, waste become a tolerable thing? Would it be okay to leave food on my plate if management or say "mismanagement" of resources did not spark a quest to conquer peoples for land, thus thrusting them into poverty and starvation?

Let us dismiss this notion that Mother Earth will not have any more land. Volcanoes make new land all of the time by spewing out lava. So land cannot be the issue. What is at issue is that everything that we use is provided for by the earth. Does the earth function based upon scarcity? Not usually. Usually there is an overabundance.

There is an ancient African proverb, "from one seed comes many." Take a seed from a persimmon tree -- a good example because there happens to be one across the street from my house. One seed produces one tree which produces more fruit than any fool would care to count. From those seeds there is the potential for orchards and orchards. With this understanding, it is easy to see that scarcity may be one hugely false premise?

Let us now say that economics is the management and distribution of abundant resources. When I go into the produce department of a grocery store, I now see abundance? I have taken off the blinders of whether or not I can pay for what is there. Fruit and vegetables are abundant in supermarkets so this notion of scarcity is really all about the ability to pay the owners of the abundance, produced by Mother Earth -- owners who limit supply by manipulating prices. We work, earn money to feed a notion of ownership that is based upon a false premise of scarcity, devaluing the quality of our lives with envy, greed, jealousy, judgment, self-recriminations and much more.

Additionally, I want to revisit the persimmon tree. I observed the tree from its production of summer fruit to its fall balding. Most noticeably was the vast amount of decaying fruit spread around on the ground. If I had left that much food behind, my mother would have scolded me, but Mother Earth teaches a different lesson. She very efficiently uses the fruit, seeds and leaves as fertilizer for the tree, ensuring that there will be fruit for the next growing season. What affect on our perception of economy would take place if we used such effective waste management? How would it affect greed, envy, jealousy, judgment and all of those other negative emotions and actions?

The guilt taught to us when seeing leftover food piled high on our plates is easily transferred to land fields and city dumps, but both ancient and modern technologies can be used to eliminate much of this waste and guilt. What is so wonderful about it is that the techniques yield byproducts of reusable energy, namely methane gas which can be used to run diesel engines, oil, hot water and fertilizer so rich that food can be grown from it in abundant proportions on arid land. When you do not have to worry about waste, what doors open to you?

Would children be forced to develop guilt complexes that could spill over into other areas of their lives? What if they knew they could not only grow more food than they could eat, but that the leftover food could be transformed into fuel for a car or generator that could run the electrical systems of the house? What if there were even more efficient systems that yielded even more efficient reusable energy? Say zero point energy (another story)?

Perhaps all economic problems will not be solved by more efficient waste management, but even if the only lesson is just to show that economics is not about scarcity, but about who gets to control abundant resources, think of the industries that would be affected: utilities, fuel, food markets. These are the basic necessities of life that others control for us. What if we could control these resources for ourselves with miniaturized versions of these energy transformation systems?

Would we redefine wealth and prosperity? Would we be steps closer to eliminating poverty and crime? Now, that really is food for thought.

Thank you for reading my article. Now, please watch my YouTube video The Happiness Tree in which I read the folktale I wrote based upon the ancient African proverb, "from one seed comes many." Also, see videos on more efficient waste management and more efficient food production.

(c) Copyright - Pamela Hamilton. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

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Prevent Illnesses in School children by Putting Portable Sinks in Every Classroom

ByRudy Moore

Wherever you go, the existence of germs is something that you cannot avoid. Places that are usually crowded with many people often pose the highest risks for spread of infection and disease. As for your kids, the school is among one of the crowded areas that they are staying. With so many kids around some of whom can be coughing, sneezing and bearing allergies, it becomes very easy for young schoolchildren to become ill. However, there is one sure way to prevent illnesses in these kids and this is by putting portable sinks for every classroom.

If you're wondering how mobile sinks can help, well, it's only fairly simple. Schoolchildren can use them to wash their hands. Handwashing is by far one of the most effective and simplest ways to help prevent the spread of germs. Children are not that conscious about their health. They always need to be reminded to sanitize their hands and fingers. If there are no portable sinks which they can see right away, they easily forget that they should be washing their hands before eating their snacks or after sneezing unto them.

In schools, it only takes one child to infect some or all of his or her classmates in the classroom. The sick child attends school and can come in sneezing and coughing. Being little children that he or she is, it's not the handkerchief that is used to cover the mouth. Rather, it is the hands that are typically used. With droplets full of viruses and bacteria sticking to those little hands, wiping them to the sides of the skirts or the pants doesn't kill the viruses away. They remain in there and can be potentially transferred to other schoolchildren by simply touching the doorknobs, books and table surfaces in the room.

Some kids who may be suffering from stomach aches and diarrhea can use the toilet and go back to the classroom without washing his or her hands. The likelihood of someone getting infected by the same condition is predominantly high. Knowing schoolchildren, especially the younger ones, they are very prone to nail-biting and thumb-sucking.

Hence, proper handwashing is the only best defense that schoolchildren can do to fight getting sick. By keeping their hands clean, the spread of flu, diarrhea and other diseases can be quickly prevented. Handwashing activity can be effectively carried out in schools if there are useful devices that these schoolchildren can utilize right away. With portable sinks in every classroom, schoolchildren can be kept clean and healthy all the time.

Cleanliness in a mobile food business is important, cleaning the leftovers and food can be so hard but with the help of portable sinks.

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Keep Kids Healthy With Portable Sinks for Classrooms

ByAngel B Mayer

Since most kids don't commonly complain about minor symptoms of sickness until they feel very weak and in pain for a day or two, it is important to keep them safe and healthy at all times. As a good and effective preventive measure, kids should start learning about proper hand washing at home and even at school. By letting them practice the routine every single day, kids will soon get used to the habit of keeping their hands clean before taking in any food products.

The school is probably like a second home for children. They spend a lot of time in these halls to learn different things that will help them become better persons in the future. Each classroom has to be equipped with the right tools for learning. Books aren't just they only way to get kids to learn about the world, the environment, and good health. There are still many things that teachers and other educators can present to children.

Having portable sinks for classrooms is a very practical way to let kids learn about proper sanitation. Teaching them all aspects of hand washing through actual practice with use of soap and water can help a lot in keeping them well-informed. The kids will also learn just how important health and wellness is for every individual. The fact that they can avoid the spread of diseases though simple and easy hand washing, these kids will become much better and healthier individuals today and the future. Without this very important lesson, kids can easily infect other people or become infected with harmful bacteria making them sick.

These days, many parents cannot afford to see their children get sick with an illness that could have been easily avoided through proper hand washing. Though teaching kids are primarily one the many functions of parents, the school also plays a very important role in teaching their kids how to become healthy individuals. Not all parents are capable of teaching their kids, thus learning should never stop at home but should extend in the classroom with the help of teachers and useful equipments.

Portable sinks for classrooms are an integral part of kids' learning on how to become healthy individuals. This is one of the most basic and yet powerful tools in teaching kids understand how proper washing of hands should be done. Though this may sound very simple, but the benefits of keeping kids informed and healthy is priceless.

Make your children reach the sink with customized portable sinks for classrooms with easy to move sinks for your kids and with hot and cold water faucet.

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Portable Sinks for Daycare - A Healthy and Wise Choice

ByAngel B Mayer

Investing in portable sinks for daycare centers is very important. In fact, there are a lot of great benefits for choosing such equipment to be used in facilities like daycares. Everybody would agree that this is probably one of the wisest and most convenient ways to protect our children. Daycare centers and even preschool centers must stay true to their words in keeping children safe and healthy while under their care. A good sink for children for every classroom would be ideal and practical as well. An easy to carry sink can also help institutions save a lot of money without compromising the health and wellness of children.

One of the most practical reasons for investing on an easy to carry sink is the idea that it can save people a lot of money. Owners of preschools and daycare centers would mostly agree that saving enough money for such equipments belongs to their top priority due to the unstable state of today's economy. By utilizing an easy to carry sink, users will also be able to control the amount of running water just like any other ordinary permanent sink. This also allows teachers to have kids learn about conservation of resources.

The use of easy to carry sink also have a great impact towards the environment. For centers that are concerned with the environment, this seems to be one the best choices. Many children are quite wasteful when it comes with water simply because they are not yet aware of its environmental impact. Having a good easy to carry sink around the classroom will allow kids to learn a very valuable lesson about water conservation and saving the environment. When these kids learn of its importance, they now understand why they have to save water and not waste them. Imagine just how much water can be saved from it. It would certainly make their parents proud as well.

Portable sinks for daycare centers can help promote a better and healthy lifestyle for many kids. This is a very good tool which can be used to teach young children about sanitations and how can hand washing become so important in keeping them healthy all the time. This idea would be one of the wisest concepts in keeping kids well-informed of roper health practices which they can adopt in their own homes. Parents would be most proud to see their kids learning more on how to be healthy.

Make your children reach the sink with customized portable sinks for daycare with easy to move sinks for your kids and with hot and cold water faucet.

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Alternative Energy Sources: The Future of Clean Energy

A quest for alternative energy sources has become a common phenomenon at every corner of the earth. The stock of fossil fuel will one day come to an end. Moreover, burning this fuel pollutes our surrounding atmosphere. So, there is an urgent need for alternative sources of clean energy. There are several options in this regard. The need is a comprehensive planning and proper implementation of the strategy. Mass campaigns should be arranged to make the general people aware about the benefits of renewable energy.

The Sun is the most powerful and effective source of alternative energy. Solar power guides the air pressure and the tidal waves that are used in wind and hydro-electric plants. Solar power is the key source behind generating free and never-ending electricity. This electricity has become a common energy mode at households in different distant and remote corners across the countries. Solar heater, bulbs, lanterns and other electrical equipment can be activated with solar energy. Even, street lights are being lit with this electricity. One of the key reasons behind the popularity of solar power is that it can be generated at home without any technical knowledge. The time is not far, when it will be utilized to run automobiles.

The rich benefits of renewable electricity can be fully reaped after initial installation investments. The resource efficient apartments are systematically equipped to conserve energy as well as run on less energy utilization than those of traditional buildings. These buildings are designed in line with environment-friendly set ups and they make proper use of the surrounding environment. They are armed with cost-effective equipment and technologies that offer the dividends of lower energy consumption cost, clean and fresh air, and enhanced real estate value. These households are also not dependent on local power stations, and hence unaffected by power shortage. They easily gain attention due to uninterrupted power supply advantage.

In the rural belts, biogas electricity is generating interest among the masses. As, biomass, crops, manure and green waste are easily available in such areas, production of biogas will no doubt gain momentum in the coming times. Ironically in different corners of the world there is still reluctance to accept alternative energy sources due to lack of awareness about eco-friendly energy. There is an urgent need for extensive campaign planning on behalf of both government and NGO levels. To make our earth cleaner, energy conservation efforts and renewable energy sources will play major roles in the coming future.

Earth Technologies is a green solution company dealing with alternative energy sources.

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Risky Chemicals in the Environment and Protecting Yourself

Risky chemicals in the environment have increased drastically in the last couple of years. Some of these are due to human influence while others are brought about by natural causes. Regardless of the factors leading to this state, the impact has been devastating not only to humans but animals alike.

Some of these chemicals come from either industrial or agricultural activities. There are some which are designed to carry out functions like healing animals or killing pesticides. Additionally, others are designed as structural materials used to enhance various applications. While these chemicals come in handy for enhancing life, they are also known to cause grievous harm. Considering this fact, it is in order to state that the arm far outweighs the benefits.

Risky chemicals get to the environment as emissions and in other instances, they do so through water. For instance, when nitrogen and sulfur oxide from vehicles and industrial wastage are omitted and combine with the other gases in the atmosphere, they are responsible for causing acidic rain. This in turn poisons rivers and water bodies. It is for this reason that there is an influx in death of aquatic animals. At the end of the day, this also affects land by lowering its productivity.

Risky chemicals in the environment are also responsible for affecting chains of interconnected ecosystems and eventually this leads to extinction of certain species. Due to all these factors, it is important to ensure that you are well protected from the effects associated with these chemicals. The air people breathe, food they eat and the water they drink is ingested with these risky chemicals and for this reason, it is always considered important to ensure that caution is exercises.

No place is safe since the indoors and outdoors are all affected. You could start protecting yourself from risky chemicals in the environment by ensuring that you don't live in areas close to chemical processing plants. While you might thinks this is an inconvenience, it will go a long way to increase your chances of enjoy good health. According to research, it is estimated that at least 80% of all cancer cases are brought about by such risky chemicals. Other risk factors include kidney disorders, heart disease, liver disease, anemia and emphysema among others.

Even the personal things people use such as hair sprays, strong cleaners, varnish, paint and tarnish are known to contain risky chemicals. At the end of the day, this reinforces the belief that no one is actually safe from the risky chemicals in the environment. As the rate of pollution continues to increase, more and more people are suffering from all the effects stated earlier and it is precisely due to this fact that it is deemed important to find a solution quickly.

If something is not done about the risky chemicals in the environment, it will be only a matter of time before there is an increased reportage of more sick people. Fortunately, there are some measures which are been put into place to ensure that this never happens. With luck, it should be easy for this end to be met.

Find out more about Miracle 2 Soap for natural cleaning products. Learn more about Miracle 2 Neutralizer to help raise the body ph level.

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President Obama's Green Energy Jobs

ByLeonard Wald

The Problem
President Obama has proposed opening up millions of jobs to replace some of the millions lost in the recession by pushing development in the field of green energy. This is an excellent proposal, if possible, since it would accomplish four desirable goals at the same time, namely:
Help make the transition from a fossil fuel based energy economy to a green energy economy in order to reduce carbon dioxide and other bad emissions.Start the U.S. on the road to a sustainable energy economy.Reduce or perhaps eliminate the chronic trade deficit the U.S. runs in the world economy by reducing its oil and gas imports.Provide the jobs the U.S. so desperately needs.

Several critics have stated that the President's proposal is only politics, since the green energy field cannot provide millions of jobs and dependence on green energy sources may not even be achievable at the present time. Let us investigate this proposal without the political polemic to see if it is a realistic goal.

The Requirements
In order to accomplish the President's job goals, we need to look for energy production options that have the following characteristics.
The energy production option should provide large numbers of jobs and yet not drive up the cost of the energy produced. Thus we are looking for a means of taking the money we normally would pay to the owners of oil and gas fields and pay it to US workers. Such an option, would allow us to pay no more for the energy and have the money paid go to American workers.
The programs the government supports must have job leverage-i.e., the money the government provides will produce jobs, but it will also encourage investors to provide new money that will produce even more jobs. Without leverage, millions of jobs requires billions of dollars which the US currently can't afford
The jobs produced should be free from job replacement by computers and robots. In order for this to happen, working with humans must be the best to operate.
It should be possible for the chosen energy option to enter into the job production phase as soon as possible. We must think of results showing:
Political near term-1 1/2 years from now to be useful for the next election.
Near term-5 years from now.
Long term-10 years from now.
In order to accomplish the President's green energy goals, we need to look for energy production options that have the following critical features, namely, the energy must be:
Plentiful enough to start covering the nation's base load (electricity) needs in the near term and make fuels for portable power plants (autos, trucks and aircraft) that can replace fossil fuels in the long term as they peak out.Safe and free from carbon dioxide and other pollutant production.Price competitive with fossil fuels ($0.08-0.12/KWH), so it can start replacing fossil fuels now, and later, as fossil fuels peak out, replace them.Able to use the existing energy distribution systems.

Potential Solutions
Several green energy options have been proposed, namely:
Nuclear fission reactors of a modified and improved design.Land based wind turbines.Shore based wave generators.Land based solar cells and/or solar thermal generators.Green fuels to replace fossil fuels such as alcohol and oil from food crops, waste wood, kelp and algae.Land based deep thermal wells.Ocean based wind turbines, wave generators and solar cells.

Let us explore each green energy option in sequence and match it to our list of requirements.

Nuclear Fission.A nuclear fission reactor is competitive in cost because the energy is as concentrated as is that from fossil fuels, so a relatively small amount of equipment is needed to exploit it. Such reactors are currently being used for base load (Load Factor

Fuel-Saving Products And Devices On The Market - People Need More Than Mere User Feedback As Basis

ByJoan Vonnegut

There is a wide range of fuel-saving products and devices which are made available on the global market now that energy and fuel consumption have become a growing concern that more and more people are learning more about. Most these products and devices are only backed up by feedback from people who great things to say based on the results they've gotten after using these products and devices which are aimed to help cut down overall fuel consumption.

Most people are inclined to saying how much they have managed to cut down on their fuel consumption, allowing them to save money in the process, however what do most people really know when it comes to efficiency in fuel?

Companies that manufacture and distribute these products and devices will clearly use the best terms to entice the public into buying what their company has to offer and it is easy for people to believe that they are getting exactly what they pay for, and as much as their results may be true in the basic sense, there are other factors which can affect the consumption of fuel in general which most people are simply oblivious to.

It is common for people to find positive changes in the overall consumption of fuel but the truth of the matter is that factors such as driving style, route, and even the weather conditions can affect how much fuel is going to be consumed by any given motor vehicle.

Keeping these factors in mind, it becomes relatively important that people become able to realize whether or not these fuel-saving products and devices really do work as effectively as they claim. If you are looking to take part in the movement towards a global reduction on fuel consumption, it is best to select the best fuel-saving products and devices based on features other than user feedback since most of the feedback that you will find on company websites are likely to be intended to generate higher sales for the company.

If you are able to find a company that can provide you with a very clear breakdown on how their fuel-saving products and devices effectively reduce fuel consumption then you have better luck at getting exactly what you want for your money. Finding emissions drive cycle testing results can provide you with a much better way to see how fuel-saving products and devices are supposed to work as opposed to seeing what other people have to say.

Joan Vonnegut
Fuel-Saving Products

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